The Seven Motivation Theories
Motivation is the process or mindset that an individual has as direction, intensity, and persistence towards achieving a goal. The level of motivation varies depending on the individual, and it can change over time and situation. There are many theories on motivation; each one will be briefly explained as follows:
#1 Maslow’s theory
The popular Motivation theory by Maslow states how people satisfy personal needs in the context of their work (Neher, 1991). The different hierarchies of needs defined by Maslow are:
- Physiological needs like (food, water, oxygen).
- Safety-security needs.
- Social needs.
- Esteem needs.
- Need for self-actualization.
#2 McClelland’s theory
Another theory is McClelland’s theory that describes the needs that specific individual needs and they are acquired over time and shaped by one’s life experience. The needs consist of needs of:
- Needs for achievement.
- Needs for affiliation.
- Needs for power.
#3 Self-Determination theory
Self-Determination is a fundamental concept of self-control, where an individual prefers to feel responsible and have control over their actions that shape their destiny.
#4 Goal-setting theory
Setting goals are essential for any leader to make employees want to achieve a task at a particular time and deadline.
#5 Self-efficiency theory
This is when an individual is sure that they can achieve the task at hand under the given circumstances.
#6 Reinforcement theory
It is defined as the behavior as a function of its consequences. This happens when an individual is forcing himself to achieve a task and direct his actions.
#7 Social learning theory
An individual learns along the way through both observation and direct experience from others or past experiences.
Neher, A. (1991). Maslow's Theory of Motivation: A Critique. Journal of Humanistic Psychology.